Minimizing Your Taxes in Retirement
As someone who will be eligible to make penalty-free withdrawals from my retirement accounts in just a few years, I have spent a lot of time thinking about how to minimize my taxes.
I have assets in traditional IRA and 401(k) accounts, as well as a Roth IRA. In addition, I have savings outside of these retirement accounts. It is imperative to have a good tax strategy for these accounts in order to maximize what you get to keep.
Required Minimum Distributions
Once you hit age 59½, you can make penalty-free withdrawals from your retirement accounts. However, starting at age 73, you have to take a mandatory yearly withdrawal called a required minimum distribution (RMD) from your traditional IRA and 401(k) accounts. These RMDs are taxed at your regular income rate, and they can push you into a higher tax bracket, making you pay more in taxes.
Many people delay taking distributions for retirement accounts, but then your options become limited once the RMD rules are triggered. There are better strategies to manage these withdrawals.
One approach is proportional withdrawals, which means taking money from different account types to spread out the taxable income over your retirement years. However, this works best for those without recurring retirement income sources.
The key is to evaluate your income and tax brackets to optimize which accounts to withdraw from. Some accounts, like Roth IRAs, offer tax-free withdrawals, providing a way to minimize your tax bill.
The Power of the Roth IRA
Roth IRAs can serve two functions in this strategy. First, if you have no cash outside of retirement accounts, you can use your Roth IRA withdrawals for living expenses without triggering any income tax liabilities. At the same time, you can convert conventional IRA funds into Roth IRA funds each year. Converted IRA funds do trigger tax liabilities, so the key there is to keep the converted amount low enough each year to keep you in the lowest possible tax bracket.
If you do have additional cash that you can live on, then you should still convert conventional IRA funds to Roth IRA funds each year. But since Roth IRAs have no required distributions during the life of the original owner — and the distributions are tax-free — they can also be an effective vehicle for wealth transfer to your heirs. You just need to have a way to meet your expenses in order to employ this strategy.
For those with larger IRA balances, you should probably talk to a tax advisor or financial professional to find the best approach for your specific situation. With the right plan, you can minimize taxes, prolong your retirement income, and even pass on wealth to your loved ones effectively.
P.S. For market-thumping gains with mitigated risk, I suggest you consider the advice of our colleague Jim Pearce, chief investment strategist of Personal Finance.
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