Boosting Your Nest Egg in 2023

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At Investing Daily, we’ve grown increasingly concerned with the national trend toward underfunded retirement plans.

As part of my continuing effort to better serve loyal readers, I’ve answered the latest batch of “frequently asked questions” regarding 401k plans. The questions below run the gamut in sophistication and were posed by novice and seasoned investors alike. Chances are, at least a few of these topics have perplexed you as well.

Get 2023 off to the right start, by reexamining all aspects of your 401k.

What are the latest limits to 401k contributions?

This question is trickier than it seems. You can’t just determine the limit and then assume the ceiling is fixed. As with anything that involves the government, the rules continually change and you need to monitor them.

You can funnel $22,500 into your 401k for 2023, up from the $20,500 limit in 2022. Employees 50 and older can contribute an extra $7,500, up from $6,500 in 2022.

How much should I contribute?

I advise the maximum, but that’s easier stated than done. Not everyone can afford it. Strive for at least 10% to 15% of your income during your earning years, more if affordable to you. (I realize that you still have bills to pay and cash flow is important.)

If your company is generous enough to offer a matching contribution, you should kick in enough to make the most of that match. For example, if your company matches $1.00 up to 10% of your contributions, you should contribute at least 10%.

Are there major changes to 401k rules that I might not know about?

Many retirement investors seem unaware of the Setting Every Community Up for Retirement (SECURE) Act, enacted in 2019.

The SECURE legislative package includes provisions to expand the eligibility of 401k plans to include part-time workers that complete between 500 and 1,000 hours of service for multiple years, and to increase the age for required minimum distributions from age 70 1/2 to age 72 in 2020.

Another key provision of SECURE encourages 401k plans to mimic a feature of conventional pensions by offering products with guaranteed income payments.

Are there different ways in which employers offer a matching contribution?

Yes, your employer can choose among several methods for determining the percentage that it contributes. The most common are a fixed percentage of what you put into the plan; a predetermined percentage of your pay; and a discretionary percentage that’s subject to change according to how your company is performing.

To reiterate: Make it a point to contribute at least the minimum amount required to trigger your company’s full match. Otherwise, you’re refusing free money!

I’m self-employed. What are my 401k options?

Many people don’t realize that you don’t need to run a large full-time business to benefit from a self-employed retirement plan. Even if you moonlight, work part time, or freelance, self-employed retirement plans offer enormous tax benefits.

In fact, if your cash flow can handle it, you might be able to put 100% of your net profit as a self-employed person into a 401k plan—and deduct the money, too. Here’s a look at your options:

  • Simplified Employee Pension (SEP) Plan.

If your income from self-employment is relatively small, or if you’re newly self-employed, a SEP is your best bet.

The biggest enticement of a SEP is as its name implies: it’s simple. The IRS treats a SEP just as if it were an Individual Retirement Account (IRA), which means the paperwork to set up a SEP is minimal and, mercifully, the IRS imposes no requirements for annual tax reporting.

Annual contributions to a SEP are discretionary; if you’re hurting for cash one year and need to cut back, you’re free to do so.

SEP plans only allow employer contributions. For a self-employed individual, contributions are limited to 25% of your net earnings from self-employment (not including contributions for yourself), up to $66,000 for 2023 ($61,000 for 2022; $58,000 for 2021; $57,000 for 2020; and subject to annual cost-of-living adjustments for later years). You can calculate your plan contributions using these IRS tables and worksheets.

If your business sponsors another defined contribution plan in addition to your SEP plan (for example, a profit-sharing plan or a 401k plan), then your contributions for yourself to all these plans may not exceed 25% of your net earnings from self-employment (not including contributions for yourself), up to $66,000 for 2023 ($61,000 for 2022; $58,000 for 2021; and $57,000 for 2020).

Note that salary deferrals are not subject to the 25% limit and catch-up contributions are not included in the $66,000 limit for 2023.

Also, another convenience is that you can set up and fund a SEP after the end of the tax year.

  • Self-employed 401k

Also known as a solo 401k, this alternative involves more paperwork and must be established by December 31. This plan is limited to self-employed business owners with no employees other than a spouse.

Self-employed individuals and small business owners that have adopted a solo 401k plan will be able to make tax-deferral employee and employer contributions of up to $66,000 for 2023 ($61,000 for 2022; $58,000 for 2021; $57,000 for 2020; and $56,000 for 2019).

Annual contributions are discretionary and you can borrow from the plan.

Can I temporarily cease contributions if I can’t afford it, but start up again later?

It depends on your employer. Some allow it; some don’t. However, most plans give you the latitude to stop contributing for a while. Check the rules with your HR department.

What are “hardship” withdrawals?

I advise against hardship withdrawals. Your best bet is to bite the bullet and find another source of money for whatever need has arisen. You should treat your 401k as sacrosanct. That’s why it was troubling that during the Great Recession, many 401k savers tapped their accounts simply to make ends meet, further exacerbating the retirement crisis that faces America.

But again, that’s easy to state and harder to do. Maybe your financial back is against the wall and you have no recourse but to crack your 401k piggy bank. If that’s the case, the IRS allows the following reasons for a hardship distribution:

  • Medical expenses incurred by you, your spouse, children, dependents, beneficiaries beyond what is covered by insurance;
  • Payment of funeral or burial expenses for your spouse, children, dependents, parents, or beneficiaries;
  • Purchase of primary residence;
  • Payment of tuition for post-secondary education for you or your spouse, children, dependents or beneficiaries for the next semester or scholastic period;
  • Prevention of eviction from your primary residence or foreclosure of the mortgage on your primary residence; and
  • Payment of repair to your primary residence that qualifies for the casualty deduction of Internal Revenue Code Section 165.

Check with your HR department for further details.

What are the rules regarding loans from 401k plans?

I advise against taking out a loan against your 401k. But if you urgently need money, this option is available to you, depending upon your employer’s rules.

Companies are free to offer loans as part of a 401k plan, but nothing compels them to do so. Your Summary Plan Description or HR department can make this clear for you. Typically, you must repay the loan within five years.

You’re allowed to borrow up to 50% of your vested account balance to a maximum of $50,000. Plans often establish a minimum amount and restrict the number of loans you can take at any one time. Repayment is usually in the form of installments automatically deducted from your paycheck.

If you leave your job, any unpaid portion of the loan will be calculated as income and be subject to taxation and, if you’re under the age 59 1/2, a penalty.

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John Persinos is the editorial director of Investing Daily. You can reach him at:

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